The fee an architect receives depends on the types and levels of services provided, and the formal agreement you develop jointly with your architect will be an excellent basis for a compensation proposal. There are a number of commonly used payment structures— compensation may be based on one or more of them—and arriving at the one that is fairest to both client and architect requires thoughtful consideration.
Multiple of Direct Personnel Expense multiplies salaries plus benefits by a factor representing overhead and profit.
Professional Fee Plus Expenses includes salaries, benefits, and overhead as the expense, and the fee may be a multiplier, percentage, or lump sum.
Hourly Billing Rates include salaries, benefits, overhead, and profit in rates for designated personnel.
Stipulated Sum. Compensation is stated as a dollar amount.
Percentage of Cost of the Work Compensation is calculated by applying an agreed-upon percentage to the estimated or actual cost of the work.
Square Footage. Compensation equals the square footage of the structure multiplied by a pricing factor.
Unit Cost. Compensation is based on the number of units such as rooms and apartments.
Royalty. Compensation is a share in the owner’s income or profit derived from the project.
Suppose my project has many repetitive units. Does it make sense to use these as a basis for compensation ?
Will the number of units bear a reasonable relationship to the responsibilities of the architect? If the answer is yes, unit cost may be an appropriate method of compensation.
When does it make sense to consider hourly compensation?
It makes good sense when there are many unknowns. Many projects begin with hourly billing and continue until the scope of the project is better defined.
What does a stipulated sum include?
Generally, it includes the architect’s direct personnel expenses, other direct expenses chargeable to the project, indirect expense or overhead, and profit. The stipulated sum does not include reimbursable expenses.
What are reimbursable expenses?
These are out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the architect on behalf of the owner, such as long-distance travel and communications, reproduction of contract documents, and authorized overtime premiums.
What a bout payment schedules?
Ask your architect to provide a proposed schedule of payments. Such a schedule will help you plan for the financial requirements of the project.
What other expenses can the owner expect?
These may include site surveys and legal descriptions, geotechnical services, required technical tests during construction, an on-site project representative, and the necessary legal, auditing, and insurance counseling services needed to fulfill the client’s responsibilities.
What if too little is known about the project to determine the full extent of professional services in advance? If this is the case, then engage the architect to provide project definition and other predesign services first, with remaining phases and services to be determined later.
In the past, clients typically developed separate agreements with both architect and contractor. More recently, an option that involves a combination of the two, known as design-build, has become increasingly popular. There are four basic design-build scenarios:
Design-build-contractor: The architect and contractor work together to develop a set of bid documents from which a client may choose and then build them according to the contractor’s prescripts.
Design-build-architect: The architect designs and capitalizes a project, then engages the necessary labor to bring it to completion.
Bridging: The client engages an architect to conceptualize a design, then hires a design-build firm to develop the concept and build the project under the supervision of the original architect.
Construction management: The client makes separate contracts with both an architect and a contractor, then gives construction management responsibility to a third party.